Artificial intelligence (AI) makes it attainable for machines to understand from encounter, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. Certain tasks can be performed more quickly and far more accurately by traditionally programmed computer systems than by human beings, especially numerical computation and the storage, retrieval, and sorting of large quantities of information. Haugeland, J., 1985, Artificial Intelligence: The Very Notion, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Bishop, M. & Preston, J., 2002, Views into the Chinese Area: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Alpaydin, E., 2014, Introduction to Machine Studying, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Wallach, W. & Allen, C., 2010, Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Because it is usually harder for machines to locate proofs in an intensional logic than in straight 1st-order logic, it is often expedient to encode down the former to the latter.
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